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Sports Medicine

  • Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tearsAnterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the major ligaments of the knee. It is located in the middle of the knee and runs from the femur (thighbone) to the tibia (shinbone).

  • ConcussionConcussion

    A concussion, also called a mild Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) occurs as a result of a blow or an injury to the head. Concussions are common in people involved in sports such as football, ice hockey, snow skiing, bicycling, etc.

  • FracturesFractures

    Trauma is defined as a sudden incident causing physical injury. It is a broad term describing all types of injuries affecting the muscles, tendons, ligaments, joints, nerves, blood vessels, or bones that most commonly occur during sports, exercise, or any other physical activity.

  • Knee cartilage injuriesKnee cartilage injuries

    Articular or hyaline cartilage is the tissue lining the surface of the two bones in the knee joint. Cartilage helps the bones move smoothly against each other and can withstand the weight of the body during activities such as running and jumping.

  • Meniscal tearsMeniscal tears

    There are two wedge-shaped cartilage pieces present between the thighbone and the shinbone each called a meniscus. The menisci stabilize the knee joint and act as shock absorbers.

  • Nerve compression injuriesNerve compression injuries

    The human body has 2 nervous systems, the central nervous system that includes the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system that includes a network of nerves that lie outside the brain and spinal cord.

  • Patellar TendonitisPatellar Tendonitis

    Patellar tendinitis, also known as "jumper's knee", is an inflammation of the patellar tendon that connects your kneecap (patella) to your shinbone. This tendon helps in extension of the lower leg.

  • Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuriesPosterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries

    Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), one of the four major ligaments of the knee, is situated at the back of the knee. It connects the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia). The PCL limits the backward motion of the shinbone.

  • Shoulder dislocationShoulder dislocation

    Sports that involve overhead movements and repeated use of the shoulder at your workplace may lead to sliding of the upper arm bone from the glenoid.

  • Shoulder separationShoulder separation

    AC joint separation, also known as shoulder separation, is a condition characterized by damage to the ligaments that connect the acromion to the collar bone.

  • Sprains and strainsSprains and strains

    Sprains and strains are injuries affecting the muscles and ligaments. A sprain is an injury or tear of one or more ligaments that commonly occurs at the wrist, knee, ankle or thumb.

  • Tennis elbow (lateral epicondylitis)Tennis elbow (lateral epicondylitis)

    Tennis elbow is a common name for the elbow condition lateral epicondylitis. It is an overuse injury that causes inflammation and microtears of the tendons that attach to the lateral epicondyle.

  • TendonitisTendonitis

    Tendons are fibrous cords that anchor muscles to bones. Tendinitis is a condition in which a tendon becomes inflamed or irritated.

What is Sports Medicine?

Sports Medicine, also known as sports and exercise medicine (SEM), is a branch of medicine that deals with the treatment and prevention of sports and exercise-related injuries and improving fitness and performance. The main objective of sports medicine is to help individuals engage in sports and exercise in a safe and effective manner to accomplish their training goals.

A sports medicine team may comprise medical and non-medical specialists, such as physicians, surgeons, athletic trainers, physical therapists, sports psychologists, nutritionists, coaches, and personal trainers. Most sports medicine physicians deal with non-operative musculoskeletal conditions. Others are orthopedic surgeons who have decided to focus their practice on the surgical treatment of sports injuries.

Sports medicine is not a medical specialty in itself. Most sports medicine doctors are certified in internal medicine, emergency medicine, family medicine, orthopedics, or another specialty and then acquire additional training with a 2-year fellowship in sports medicine to be certified as a sports medicine specialist.

Who are Sports Medicine Specialists?

Sports medicine specialists are medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of sports- or exercise-related injuries and illness. A sports medicine specialist focuses on the medical, therapeutic, and functional aspects of exercise and works directly with athletes to improve their overall sports performance. Although sports medicine specialists work exclusively with athletes, the majority will treat anyone who needs treatment for a sports or exercise-related injury.

Sports medicine specialists treat a wide range of physical conditions, including acute traumas such as fractures, sprains, strains, and dislocations. They also treat chronic overuse injuries including tendonitis, degenerative diseases, and overtraining syndrome.

What are Sports Injuries?

Sports injuries are injuries sustained while playing indoor or outdoor sports such as football, basketball, hockey, baseball, and tennis, or while exercising. Sports injuries can result from sports accidents, inadequate training, improper use of protective devices, or insufficient stretching or warm-up exercises. Common sports injuries include bone, muscle, ligament and tendon injuries that commonly involve joints such as the shoulders, knees, hips, ankles and feet.

Some of the common types of sports injuries treated by sports medicine specialists include:

  • Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears
  • Concussion
  • Fractures
  • Knee cartilage injuries
  • Meniscal tears
  • Nerve compression injuries
  • Patellar Tendonitis
  • Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries
  • Shoulder dislocation
  • Shoulder separation
  • Sprains and strains
  • Tennis elbow (lateral epicondylitis)
  • Tendonitis

Treatment for Sports Injuries

Treatment includes management of bruises, strains and sprains, fractures, dislocations, chronic injuries, torn shoulder ligaments, ACL ligament repair in the knee as well as cartilage and meniscal repairs. Surgery is mostly accomplished by minimally invasive methods and healing is expedited by physical therapy and a rehabilitation program to ensure a quick return to your sporting activities.

The most common non-surgical or conservative treatment recommended for sports injuries include:

  • Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation (RICE) Therapy:
    • Rest: Avoid activities that may cause injury.
    • Ice: Ice packs can be applied to the injured area, which will help to diminish swelling and pain. Ice should be applied over a towel to the affected area for 15-20 minutes, four times a day for several days. Never place ice directly on the skin.
    • Compression: Compression of the injured area helps to reduce swelling. Elastic wraps, air casts and splints can accomplish this.
    • Elevation: Elevate the injured part above the heart level to reduce swelling and pain.
  • Activity Modification: Avoiding activities that trigger symptoms and changing your lifestyle
  • Physical Therapy: Regular exercise regimen to improve range of motion and strengthen muscles
  • Anti-inflammatory Medication: Meds like naproxen and ibuprofen are used to relieve inflammation and pain.
  • Cortisone Injection: If physical therapy, medications, rest, and activity modification do not yield the desired results, then a cortisone injection may be helpful. Cortisone is a very effective anti-inflammatory medicine for conditions such as bursitis and is a long-term pain reliever for tears and structural damage.

Surgical treatment is employed when an individual has sustained serious sports injury by means of a severe fracture, bone displacement, and soft tissue tears not amenable to conservative treatment.

Some of the common surgeries performed on athletes include:

  • Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction
  • Rotator cuff repair
  • Arthroscopy of knees, shoulders, and ankles
  • Shoulder instability surgery
  • Tendon repair
  • Cartilage restoration
  • Fracture repair
  • Labral repair
  • Biceps tenodesis surgery
  • Concussion treatment

Prevention of Sports Injuries

Some of the measures employed and advised by sports medicine specialists to prevent sports-related injuries include:

  • Follow an exercise program to strengthen your muscles.
  • Gradually increase your exercise level and avoid overdoing the exercise.
  • Ensure that you wear properly-fitted protective gear such as elbow guards, eye gear, face masks, mouth guards and pads, comfortable clothes, and athletic shoes before playing any sports activity, which will help reduce the chances of injury.
  • Make sure that you follow warm-up and cool-down exercises before and after a sports activity. Exercises will help to stretch the muscles, increase flexibility and reduce soft tissue injuries.
  • Avoid exercising immediately after eating a large meal.
  • Maintain a healthy diet, which will help to nourish the muscles.
  • Avoid playing when you are injured or tired. Take rest breaks after playing.
  • Learn all the rules of the game you are participating in.
  • Ensure that you are physically fit to play the sport.

If you wish to be advised on the most appropriate treatment, please call to schedule an appointment or click to request an appointment online.

  • Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructionAnterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction

    ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) reconstruction is a commonly performed surgical procedure. With recent advances in arthroscopic surgery, it can now be performed with minimal incision and low complication rates.

  • Rotator cuff repairRotator cuff repair

    The rotator cuff is a group of 4 muscles in the shoulder joint including the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis. These muscles originate in the scapula and attach to the head of the humerus through tendons.

  • Arthroscopy of kneeArthroscopy of knee

    Knee arthroscopy is a common surgical procedure performed using an arthroscope, a viewing instrument, to diagnose or treat a knee problem. It is a relatively safe procedure and you will usually be discharged from the hospital on the same day of surgery.

  • Arthroscopy of shoulderArthroscopy of shoulder

    Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive diagnostic and surgical procedure performed for joint problems. Shoulder arthroscopy is performed using a pencil-sized instrument called an arthroscope.

  • Arthroscopy of hipArthroscopy of hip

    Hip arthroscopy, also referred to as keyhole or minimally invasive surgery, is a procedure in which an arthroscope is inserted into your hip joint to check for any damage and repair it simultaneously.

  • Arthroscopy of elbowArthroscopy of elbow

    Elbow arthroscopy, also referred to as keyhole or minimally invasive surgery, is a surgical procedure that is performed through tiny incisions to evaluate and treat several elbow conditions.

  • Arthroscopy of ankleArthroscopy of ankle

    Ankle arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure in which an arthroscope, a small, soft, flexible tube with a light and video camera at the end, is inserted into the ankle joint to evaluate and treat a variety of conditions.

  • Shoulder instability surgeryShoulder instability surgery

    Shoulder instability is a chronic condition that causes frequent dislocation of the shoulder joint.

  • Tendon repairTendon repair

    Tendons are the soft tissues connecting muscle to bone. The Achilles tendon is the longest tendon in the body and is present behind the ankle, joining the calf muscles with the heel bone.

  • Cartilage restorationCartilage restoration

    Knee cartilage restoration is a surgical technique to repair damaged articular cartilage in the knee joint by stimulating new growth of cartilage or by transplanting cartilage.

  • Fracture repairFracture repair

    Trauma is defined as a sudden incident causing physical injury. It is a broad term describing all types of injuries affecting the muscles, tendons, ligaments, joints, nerves, blood vessels.

  • Labral repairLabral repair

    Labrum is a ring of strong fibrocartilaginous tissue lining around the socket of the hip joint. Labrum serves many functions where it acts as a shock absorber, lubricates the joint, and distributes the pressure equally.

  • Biceps tenodesis surgeryBiceps tenodesis surgery

    Proximal biceps tenodesis is the surgical reattachment of a torn proximal biceps tendon, which connects the upper part of your biceps muscle to the shoulder.

  • Concussion treatmentConcussion treatment

    A concussion, also called a mild Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) occurs as a result of a blow or an injury to the head. Concussions are common in people involved in sports such as football, ice hockey, snow skiing, bicycling, etc.

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